16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

Steve - October 28, 2018

Whether due to the vast distances separating Australia from the rest of the world or merely general apathy, popular understanding of the native Aboriginal culture of Australia remains limited. Beyond stereotypes and simplifications, often combining the native peoples of all non-European cultures into a single homogeneous amalgam, general knowledge concerning the Aboriginals is often minimal. In spite of this lack of attention or wider interest, the Aborigines inhabiting ancient Australia were actually part of a rich eco-system and even richer culture, producing impressive artwork, complex religious and communal systems governing relations, in addition to technological innovations far beyond those of their pre-historic European and Asian cousins.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
Wandjina rock art in the Kimberley region of Australia. The University of Queensland.

Here are 16 incredible facts about Ancient Australia that you probably did not know:

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
Artwork depicting the first contact between the Gweagal Aboriginal people and Captain James Cook and his crew on the shores of the Kurnell Peninsula, New South Wales. Wikimedia Commons.

16. Ancient Australia is believed to be the world’s oldest civilization outside Africa, dating from as far back as 75,000 years ago and developing in near isolation to the rest of the world

Whilst only speculation, albeit reasoned and supported by the genetic and geological information available to us, it is generally believed that humans have occupied the island of Australia since between 75,000-50,000 years ago. Stemming from early African migration, DNA analysis strongly supports the conclusion that Australian Aborigines descended from a single human population which departed Africa sometime between 64,000 and 75,000 years ago; this migration consequently would have occurred approximately 24,000 years before humans from Africa migrated into Europe and Asia. In a split that would see the first human populations leave Africa, a recent genetic examination has determined a founder population of between 1,000 to 3,000 women would have been necessary to provide the genetic diversity among the fledgling civilization that can be observed today. For reasons unknown this migration suddenly stopped about 50,000 years ago; as a result, ancient Australian Aborigines developed in near-total isolation from the rest of the world and are likely the oldest indigenous peoples outside of Africa itself.

The earliest place determined to have been inhabited by humans in Australia dates to around 55,000 years ago: the Malakhunanja II rock shelter located in the Northern Territory of modern-day Australia. The earliest human remains discovered in Australia were found at Lake Mungo, in New South Wales, and dated at around 42,000 years old, confirming the existence of populations in Australia by that time; additionally, the identification of ancient artifacts from between 6,500 to 30,000 years ago clearly demonstrates human occupation of these parts of Australia, particularly at Rottnest Island, during this time. Further assisting in the isolation of these migrants, the land bridge between Australia and New Guinea was eradicated approximately 8,000 years ago by rising sea levels; DNA analysis of the native populations of both islands reveals a close connection, suggesting significant interaction prior to this environmental separation.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
A male Aborigine carrying a hunting spear (1922). Wikimedia Commons.

15. The first Australians were predominantly hunter-gathers and nomadic people, similar to other early human populations

Whilst information is naturally limited in scope concerning the earliest inhabitants of Australia, it is widely believed and supported that the Aborigines existed as hunter-gathers: that is to say, they subsisted through the hunting of animals and the collection of plant foods; this method of survival was common throughout early human history, with up to 90 percent of human history experienced in this manner and agriculture only first discovered during the Neolithic Revolution approximately 12,500 years ago.

It is also asserted that these early Aborigines were nomadic, as also was typical for hunter-gatherer communities due to the seasonal requirements of food chains and the need to allow the land to repopulate itself to prevent man-made extinctions. Among the locations known to archeology as sites of early Aboriginal habitation are Lake Mungo, Kow Swamp, Coobool Creek, Talgai, and Keilor. Interestingly, the bones of Aborigines born between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago are considered to have been far stronger and more physically varied than their more recent descendants; this suggests the introduction of agriculture and the development of larger and more permanent settlements in the last 10,000 years, resulting in an increasingly secure and sedentary existence compared to that of a nomadic existence.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

The largest crater at the Henbury Meteorites Conservation Reserve. Wikimedia Commons.

14. Much of what we know about the history of ancient Australia stems from Aborigine stories and legends told via the oral tradition

As with many ancient peoples who resided outside the so-called “known world”, Aboriginal Australians are generally believed to have not developed an advanced system writing akin to that used by European and Asian societies. Instead, these cultures imparted stories and wisdom via the oral tradition, passed down within tribes and families often in the form of legends and folktales; without a written record of major events, like that which we enjoy from Ancient Greece for example, much of what we currently understand about the early history of Australia stems from these cross-generational stories.

Among these stories, particular attention has been paid in recent years by researchers to Aboriginal disaster legends as indicators of significant geological upheaval or occurrences of note; the first notable success of this approach was the identification and confirmation of the Henbury Meteorite Field in modern-day Northern Territory, heralding into prominence the inclusion of Aboriginal oral tradition in modern scientific explorations. Found in 1899, it was not recognized as a meteorite impact site until 1931 after a connection was made with a local Aboriginal tale of a “fire devil” who struck the land there over 4,700 years prior. Since the Henbury revelation, the technique has also been applied to confirm a legend of the Gunditjmara people of modern-day Victoria regarding a massive flood; sediment and soil testing in 2015 strongly indicated an ancient tsunami covering the land several thousand years ago.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
Map of Torres Strait Islands. Wikimedia Commons.

13. Ancient Australians were possibly the world’s first human oceanic travelers, crossing vast distances over water to migrate to the isolated island

During the Pleistocene period, stretching from roughly 2.6 million years ago to 11,700 years ago, sea levels were far lower than they presently are, making migration from Africa to Australia, via Asia, much simpler than today. However, unlike the Bering Strait which is widely believed to have possessed an actual physical land bridge allowing humans to cross with relative ease, even during the Pleistocene period Australia was separated from the mainland by at least 90-100 kilometers of the ocean; this transportation requirement means that the initial African migrants who crossed into Australia were, in fact, the first recorded oceanic travelers in human history.

The precise manner or nature of the crossing is naturally unknown, but it is suspected rudimentary boats, similar to rafts and crafted from bamboo, most likely carried the migrants to their new home; it is generally assumed that a method of “island hopping” was employed as the means to ensure safe passage across the treacherous ocean waters to the uninhabited continent. Even more remarkably, due to the general consensus opinion of single large human migration to Australia, it has been contended “that initial colonization of the continent would have required deliberately organized sea travel, involving hundreds of people”.

Rather than merely accidental discovery, as occurred in the case of Iceland when Naddodd lost his way en route to the Faeroe Islands, and the gradual cumulative actions of individual families following suit, it would appear that the initial settlement of ancient Australia was a deliberate act and choice; what force might have compelled these individuals to attempt en mass the dangerous ocean crossing into isolation is impossible to guess, but more recent exoduses such as that of the Mormons in the United States or the Great Migrations of the early Medieval period, particularly that of the Turkic peoples, might provide clues as to the undeniably passionate motivations behind Aboriginal relocation to Australia.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
A Macassan wooden sailboat, of the kind used for the collection of sea cucumbers. Wikimedia Commons.

12. Although predominantly isolated from the wider world, Aboriginal Australians did engage in external trade with Asian countries

Before the “discovery” of Australia by Europeans during the Age of Exploration, it is often believed that the Aboriginal populations of the island were completely isolated from the outside world; although predominantly true, limited commerce and external relations did occur between Aborigines and other nations, in particular with the Chinese, Indonesians, and until the collapse of the land bridge the neighboring island of New Guinea. The Torres Strait, a 150-kilometer wide channel dotted with islands settled by humans approximately 2,500 years ago, was easily navigable and cultural interactions between islanders and Aboriginals were not infrequent. Aboriginal oral history explicitly details legends of differently looking humans, seemingly of Chinese description but unquestionably not Aborigine, visiting coastal tribes ranging from Cape York to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Moreover, definitive proof was established when in 2014 archeologists unearthed an 18th-Century Chinese coin from the Qing Dynasty at a remote island in the modern-day Northern Territories; the use of Chinese coins as common practice by Aborigines in fishing was originally considered a modern cultural introduction, but this has now been called into question by the discovery. The presence of foreign coinage heavily suggests commercial interactions with visitors to the island; from Indonesian fishermen from the Spice Islands to Macassan traders from Sulawesi seeking to harvest or purchase sea cucumbers to trade with the Chinese, the evidence suggests consistent commerce and relations between the Aboriginal peoples of ancient Australia and the outside world. Even older coinage, with Arabic inscriptions and traced to 10th Century East Africa, has been discovered in Australia, indicating the possibility of even earlier contact with a broader range of other civilizations.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
A word cloud of Aboriginal words.

11. More than 250 Indigenous Aboriginal languages used to exist in Australia, many of which are now extinct with fewer than 20 spoken by Indigenous groups in modern-day Australia

Despite the absence of a formal writing system, the Aborigines were by no means unsocial, developing in excess of 250 separate and distinct Aboriginal languages prior to the colonization of Australia. In 1788, coincidentally the year of the first white birth in Australia, it was estimated more than 500 separate Aboriginal nations spoke in excess of a hundred separate languages using more than 600 dialects of said languages.

Sadly, after a slow period of decline less than 20 such languages are spoken collectively by all the Indigenous peoples of Australia today; although some have been successfully preserved by linguists, others have been forever lost as they became extinct with dozens more highly endangered. More happily, however, many Aboriginal words have been transplanted into modern English, with more than 400 words adopted, most notably “kangaroo” which was picked up during Captain Cook’s visit to modern-day Cooktown for ship repairs; other borrowed words include koala, wombat, kookaburra, and boomerang, but several non-nouns have also been adopted including bung: an adjective for bad.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
The ancient ax fragment found at Carpenter’s Gap under a microscopic focus. Stuart Hay/SWNS.

10. The world’s oldest ax was discovered in Australia, dating from almost 50,000 years ago, at a time when “nowhere else in the world do you get axes”

Originally excavated in the 1990s from a remote rock shelter known as Carpenter’s Gap, believed to be one of the earliest sites of human occupation in Australia and located in the Kimberley region of modern-day Western Australia, a small rock fragment roughly the size of a thumbnail was discarded by archeologists at the time and dismissed as unimportant; in 2014, further analysis using modern methods identified the tiny fragment as part of the world’s oldest known ax, believed to have been made between 45,000 and 49,000 years ago and dating back to close to the arrival of early humans to the Australian continent. Constructed from carefully shaped basalt and polished by grinding the ax upon another rock until smoothed, the ax was even re-sharpened at a later date at which point the fragment most likely separated from the weapon.

Not merely an ancient artifact of curiosity, the discovery indicates that stone axes were actually created by humans at least 10,000 years earlier than previously thought by archeologists. In fact, the find indicates that the early inhabitants of ancient Australia might have even been far more technologically advanced than the rest of humanity at this time, with Japan – the earliest known civilization to also use axes – only developing them from around 35,000 years ago; in the rest of the world, such technology typically appeared after the introduction of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago. With no known axes in South-East Asia during the Ice Age, the new arrivals to Australia were clearly immensely innovative and experimented with new means to survive in their unfamiliar environment; adapting to the new continent, the Aboriginal people invented tools that would not be used for thousands of years by other humans. Interestingly, it appears such axes were only developed in the tropical north of Australia, indicating either an abandonment of the revolutionary technology by humans as they expanded south into desert and woodlands or a multi-wave migratory settlement of Australia.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

A modern depiction of an Aboriginal family on a hunt. National Library of Australia.

9. Aboriginal families took their relations incredibly seriously, with a complex system of family roles at the heart of their ancient culture

As with every human civilization, the manner in which we treat and interact with our family is both unique and immensely important at revealing cultural values; Aboriginal families are no exception, and are telling about the significance placed on the family unit by these ancient residents of Australia. Defining the place of an individual within a wider community, these systems and conventions of action determine the roles, obligations, and responsibilities of each generation within said community.

In the Aboriginal context, the caring of children was not simply considered the responsibility of the child’s parents as is common in modern-day Western societies. Instead, family members were expected to support each other completely in such aspects of life, with elders supporting their tribe’s young and so on within a system of broad kinship among broad tribal communities; in this way, the old teach the young so the young can pass on said knowledge to the even younger and maintain tribal progress and history.

Unfortunately, this long-standing cultural and generational connection only made the advent of colonialism in Australia even more painful for the Aboriginal peoples. As part of their attempt to “civilize” the savage natives, imperialists often separated entrenched families and communities as a deliberate control method; as a result, the traditional mechanisms of social interaction and the maintenance of cultural knowledge was destroyed for these families resulting in immense harm on both a human and historical level.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
The shoreline of Tasmania and Victoria about 14,000 years ago, showing the effect of rising sea levels on some of the known human settlement locations. Wikimedia Commons.

8. The Ancient Aborigines faced changing climates just as we are today, suffering the consequences of lost homes and separation

Between 18,000 to 15,000 years ago, our planet underwent a considerable shift in climate resulting in widespread environmental consequences and precipitating adaptation or extinction by countless species. A prime feature of this seismic shift was rising sea levels, with ocean waters rising nearly 400 feet between 18,000 to 7,000 years ago including a rapid period within 16,000 and 14,000 years ago wherein sea levels rose as much as 50 feet in just 300 years. By 13,000 years ago, these risen waters had separated the land bridges connecting Australia via the modern-day Torres Strait to the island of New Guinea, the Bass Strait between Victoria and Tasmania, and impeded access to Kangaroo Island; in consequence of these changes, by 9,000 years ago Kangaroo Island and many of the smaller islands of the Bass Strait were rendered uninhabited by humans. The climate of Australia itself also underwent a significant transformation, becoming a dryer continent more resembling the modern-day conditions, with much lower average temperatures and decreased rainfall.

Remarkably, much of our detailed knowledge regarding this wide-ranging geological shift is known through preserved histories documented by the Aboriginals of Australia via an oral tradition. The only culture to record this dramatic climate change, accomplishing such without written histories, the Aboriginals employed a cross-generational method of storytelling spanning over 300 generations detailing gradual tribal migrations due to the loss of hunting grounds and rising water levels.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

The Rainbow Serpent, as painted on a cave wall by Aboriginal artists. Wikimedia Commons.

7. A rich and complex spiritual religion governed the beliefs of ancient Australian Aborigines, demanding life and nature be treated as sacred

At the core of nearly all civilizations throughout history is religion and the ancient Aboriginals of Australia are no exception, with their beliefs serving as the world’s longest continuous religion. A spiritualistic culture, the Aborigines founded their religious beliefs on the “Dreamtime“, a complex set of religious ideas divided into four composite key parts: the beginning of everything; the life and power of the ancestors; the war of life and death; and power in life. The Dreamtime was all four of these concepts simultaneously, representing the past, present, and future in an unending cycle. As all life stems from the great spirits who inhabit the Dreamtime, such as the Rainbow Serpent who is responsible for the creation of all the rivers, lakes, and mountains, all life and even nature itself is considered a sacred creation and thus must be respected.

As is common with early religious beliefs, stories of these divine spirits along with great ancestors were passed down by the Aboriginals through the tradition of oral folktales; similarly replicated in other cultures, communication with these spiritual entities is possible via ritualistic dancing and singing, known as “iwara” or songlines by the Aborigines and performed at “corroborees” or ceremonies. It was believed that without this link the spiritual underpinnings of life would be lost, that “without ceremony, the land soon dies”. It should be noted that there was not a singular conception of the Dreamtime, rather countless variants on the same general theme. One such version, belonging to the Pitjantjatjara people of Central Australia, is recorded within the Tjukurpa: a collection of questions and answers concerning life and the rules of behavior.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

A red ochre depiction of an extinct emu-like bird found at the Arnhem Land plateau, known to have disappeared about 40,000 years ago. Ben Gunn.

6. Australia is home to some of the world’s oldest surviving paintings, with some suspected as being over 40,000 years in age

Although not developing a known system of writing, the Aboriginal people of ancient Australia nonetheless produced extensive artwork across the continent. Using rocks and bark to construct intricate designs, in addition to scratching and carving into rocks, the Aborigines also used crushed and diluted rocks to produce paints; employing a range of colors, spanning browns and reds to oranges and yellows, these paints were used to illustrate the world as seen by the ancient inhabitants of the continent.

Among the most notable discovered Aboriginal artwork is the depiction of now-extinct megafauna animals, providing an otherwise impossible glimpse into the ancient world. One such picture, located in the Arnhem Land Region of modern-day Northern Territory, shows an extinct emu-like creature called “Genyornis” and is known to have died out approximately 40,000 years ago. Unfortunately, as the paints used were made from crushed rock and clay, not organic materials, they cannot be carbon-dated; however, as asserted by archeologist Ben Gunn “the details on this painting indicate that it was done by someone who knew that animal very well”, with the level of detail unable to be replicated by mere storytelling, and consequently “either the painting is 40,000 years old, which is when science thinks Genyornis disappeared, or alternatively the Genyornis lived a lot longer than science has been able to establish.” The oldest dated drawings, made from charcoal, have been verified at 28,000 years old, making these comparatively young pictures still among the oldest ever discovered.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

The skeletal remains of Kaakutja, the first known victim of a boomerang. Michael Westaway

5. One of the most iconic modern symbols of Australia, the boomerang was, in fact, a dangerous weapon used for both hunting and fighting

Although seemingly an innocuous, even toy-like object, the boomerang was created as a dangerous tool for the purpose of inflicting deadly injury. Known for its use in hunting by Aboriginal tribes, as well as by many other ancient peoples including the Navajo Indians of North America, a boomerang was traditionally crafted from wood or bone and, despite the popular modern conception of the item, could be designed in both a returning and non-returning style. Perhaps unique to the Aboriginal people of Australia, the boomerang was also used as a hand-to-hand weapon in addition to serving as an implement for ranged combat or hunting.

Not traditionally considered a weapon by the Aborigines, in 2014 a skeleton later named Kaakutja was discovered in Australia’s Toorale National Park; dated from roughly 1305 CE, aged between 20 and 30 at the time of death, and with a gash across the forehead measuring roughly 15 centimeters determined as the cause of death for Kaakutja, the body has served as vital evidence of the use of boomerangs for combat. After ruling out the possibility of a metal weapon inflicting the injury, researchers identified in Aboriginal ethnohistory the existence of “Wonna”: a fighting boomerang. Extrapolating from this new information, it was calculated that Kaakutja suffered an initial blow to the head from a fighting boomerang, likely destroying his right eye, before a second broke several ribs and a third hacked off part of his collarbone; although of little solace to the deceased, this makes Kaakutja the oldest known victim of the boomerang.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
An aerial photograph of the stone circle; location undisclosed. NewsComAU

4. Australia possesses a man-made stone circle formation predating that of Stonehenge but has kept the location secret to prevent vandalism

Although Stonehenge enjoys international fame, Australia is quietly home to a far more ancient stone circle. Near Mullumbimby, New South Wales, and discovered in 1939, the site dating to the Paleolithic era houses one of the oldest man-made constructions in the world; comprising 181 sandstone features, it is likely these stones were quarried nearly 20 kilometers away before being transported by some unknown means by ancient Australians to their final resting place. In the words of its discoverer Frederic Slater: “the mound is one of the oldest; I should say the oldest, forms of temples in the world and dates back to the Palaeolithic age with the advent of the first man”.

Even more remarkably, the “Australian Stonehenge” is apparently inscribed with what allegedly forms one of the oldest human languages ever discovered; this discovery alone renders the common assumption concerning the lack of a formal writing system by ancient Aboriginals questionable. Translated by Slater after his discovery, 28,000 words are supposedly accounted for in what has been described as a “very complicated, multi-layered” language including “a combination of hand signs, letters, sacred signs, and body parts”. Unfortunately, due to considerable damage inflicted on the site during the 1940s, the site has been kept permanently secret and its location undisclosed to protect it from any further harm from tourists or vandalism.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia
Gwion Gwion rock art in the Kimberley region. The University of Queensland.

3. In a telling lesson for modern humans regarding ongoing dramatic shifts in climate, ancient Australia was utterly transformed by a “mega-drought” lasting more than 1,000 years which caused the extinction of entire Aboriginal civilizations

The Kimberley region of northwest Australia is home to one of the largest collections of early human rock art in the world, having been inhabited by humans for approximately the last 45,000 years; curiously, two highly distinct styles of painting are discernible: “Gwion Gwion“, dating from 17,000 to 5,000 years ago, and “Wandjina“, dating from 4,000 years ago to the present day. The reasoning behind the sudden disappearance of the Gwion people in Kimberley, and the subsequent emergence of the Wandjina, can be explained as a consequence of dramatic natural shifts in Australia’s climate.

Around 5,500 years ago the region’s annual wet season is believed to have unexpectedly ceased, resulting in an arid period lasting approximately 1,500 years before conditions stabilized at levels comparable to that of the 20th century. Through the analysis of sediments and pollen, researchers have identified shifts in vegetation and humidity to model historic climate patterns in Australia. Their conclusions were an increase in dust particles led to a failure of the monsoon rains and a “mega-drought”; as Professor Hamish McGowan explains: “our interpretation is that this seems to coincide with the demise of one culture until the climate adjusted and another took its place”. As a result of the changing climate conditions, those who adapted were able to survive and subsequently expand whilst others less fortunate or successful were seemingly and cruelty eradicated from known history.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

Joseph Lycett’s 1817 watercolor: “Aborigines Using Fire to Hunt Kangaroos”, depicting the use of fire burning as a hunting tool by Aboriginal Australians. National Library of Australia.

2. Ancient Aboriginals were not merely hunter-gatherers, but intelligently utilized fire as a tool as part of a complex farming endeavor spanning a continent

Although when one thinks of hunter-gatherers one typically envisages the tools used as spears or bows, in addition to plucking berries from bushes, Aboriginal Australians instead ingeniously also used fire as a means to carefully manage their food chain. In an incredibly sophisticated system of land management, Aborigines intelligently employed natural occurrences of water and fire to cultivate environments best suited to their subsistence needs.

Rather than mere victims of the bushfires which Australia endures each year, and which if left unchecked would eradicate the food supplies of entire tribes, native populations instead directed the fires in a way which accommodated their requirements. Selectively burning dense forest patches to reduce the impact of any potential devastating natural fire, these man-made fires cleared spaces for crop cultivation of otherwise unavailable produce and enabled the farming of animals in these areas; for instance, kangaroos prefer short grass whilst native bees prefer bloodwood, and thus the Aborigines created the conditions most appropriate for these desired outcomes. This intelligent understanding and farming practice stand in sharp contrast to Charles Darwin‘s ignoble description of indigenous Australians as “harmless savages wandering about without knowing where they shall sleep at night and gaining their livelihood by hunting in the woods”.

Unfortunately, the practice of fire-stick farming has also been blamed for various negative outcomes throughout the ecological history of Australia, namely the rapid extinction of a variety of megafauna; the deaths of these predominantly herbivorous species resulted in an overabundance of flammable crops, which in turn fueled the fires into ever-larger infernos and caused critical damage to sundry and now-extinct fire-exposed plants.

16 Incredible Facts About Ancient Australia

Brazil’s Surui people, pictured above, allegedly share ancestry with indigenous Australians. Reuters/Corbis

1. It is believed that Aboriginal Australians might share ancestry with the native peoples of South America, particularly the inhabitants of the Amazonian Basin

As noted, the Aborigines of ancient Australia are among, if not the, oldest non-African cultures in the world; in addition to this claim, it has also been suggested by genetic researchers that the Aboriginals are related to the native Amazonian tribes of South America. Genome analysis conducted in 2014 revealed that the Australian Aboriginals are the closest genetic relations to several Amazonian tribes, in particular the Surui, Xavante, and Karitiana people; in fact, Australian Aboriginals were far closer relations than any known Eurasian culture, including the most common Siberians.

The consequence of this theory means that the original migration detailed above from Africa to Australia was likely even larger than already suspected and included multiple breakaway groups; these groups, according to this theory, must have split off en route, with some ultimately destined to migrate across thousands of years to South America via the Bering Strait. It also undermines the theory that Native American migration was the result of a single breakaway occurrence, instead suggesting multiple waves into the American continents starting with the distant relatives of the Aboriginals residing in Australia.


Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

National Geographic Channel – Aboriginal Australians

The Guardian – First Humans to Reach Australia Likely Island-Hopped to New Guinea Then Walked

Smithsonian Magazine – New DNA Analysis Shows Aboriginal Australians Are the World’s Oldest Society

“Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis”, Colin Renfrew, PNAS (2007)

“DNA Confirms Aboriginal Culture One of Earth’s Oldest”, Australian Geographic (2011)

“Aboriginal genome rewrites human dispersal story”, Mudrock University (2011)

“DNA confirms Aboriginal Australian origins”, Hamish Clarke, Cosmosmagazine (2007)

“Henbury Craters and Meteorites – Their Discovery, History, and Study”, Svend Buhl and Don McColl, Hamburg (2015)

“Aboriginal Australia and the Torres Strait Islands: Guide to Indigenous Australia”, Lonely Planet (2001)

ABC Australia – Rethinking Indigenous Australia’s Agricultural Past

The Guardian – Australian Dig Finds Evidence of Aboriginal Habitation Up To 80,000 Years Ago

BBC News – Aboriginal Legends Reveal Ancient Secrets to Science

“Aboriginal-Makassan interactions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in northern Australia and contemporary sea rights claims”, D. Russell, Australian Institute of Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Studies (2004)

“Were the African coins found in Australia from a wrecker Arab dhow”, Jonathan Gornall, The National, (May 29, 2013)

“World’s oldest ax discovered in Australia”, Jonathan Pearlman, The Telegraph (May 10, 2016)

“Rock of ages: Australia’s oldest artwork found”, Associated Press, The Guardian (June 18, 2012)

“Understanding Aboriginal Dreamings”, Artlandish – Aboriginal Art Galary.

“Is this mysterious site Australia’s Stonehenge?”, Kate Schneider, NewsComAU (November 9, 2015)

“Did Mega-Drought destroy Aboriginal Culture”, Joanna Egan, Australian Geographic (December 17, 2012)

“The First Farmers”, Tony Stephens, Sydney Morning Herald (October 1, 2011)

“A DNA Search for the First Americans Links Amazon Groups to Indigenous Australians”, Helen Thompson, Smithsonian Magazine (July 21, 2015)

ABC Australia – Old Coin Shows Early Chinese Contact with Aboriginal People in Elcho Island Near Arnhem Land: Expert

Independent – Humans Reached the Americas 11,000 Years Earlier Than Previously Thought, Archaeologists Discover

Mashable – Ancient Site Could Rival Stonehenge as World’s Oldest Observatory

The Sydney Morning Herald – Why Scientists Are Intrigued by The Gwion Gwion Rock Art Of The Kimberley