17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for

Steve - October 12, 2018

Although humans teeter on the cusp of interplanetary travel, it has been a longstanding belief of some that extraterrestrial life has already visited us on Earth. Whilst some alien conspiracies revolve around UFO abductions and probing, others concern ancient structures.

From great wonders of the ancient world, including the Pyramids at Giza and Stonehenge, to rocks cut in a particular fashion in Peru, proponents of ancient astronaut theories suggest these constructs defy the technological capabilities of their time and that the only explanation for these marvels is aliens.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
A UFO flying down a highway in California. Getty Images.

Here are some examples of monumental ancient works of art and construction that some people believe aliens are actually responsible for:

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
One of the Nazca Lines: The Whale. Wikimedia Commons.

1. The Nazca Lines were NOT built to serve as an airfield for alien spacecraft

The Nazca Lines are a series of hundreds of ancient geoglyphs in the Nazca Desert of southern Peru, created sometime between 500 BCE and 500 CE. Depicting simple geometric shapes as well as complex animal designs the lines were formed by the creation of a shallow trench between 10-15cm deep, dispersing the reddish-brown surface of the desert and exposing lighter colored clay to create a contrasting image. Spanning an area of nearly 450 km2, with the largest figures reaching sizes of 440ft in length, it has been speculated by ancient astronaut proponents that the lines must have been formed by alien assistance.

Although not the progenitor of such theories, pseudo-scientist Erich von Däniken widely popularized the hypothesis that the Nazca Lines were built per the instruction of extraterrestrial beings to act as airfields for their spaceships. Contending individuals without access to aerial observation could never have produced such complex shapes and figures, Däniken’s books resulted in a significant surge in tourist attention to the Peruvian location in an attempt to verify the origins of the lines.

However, despite the popularity of Daniken’s work, the overwhelming archeological consensus remains that the Nazca Lines were created by pre-Columbian civilizations for an indeterminable cultural purpose, with the most likely possibilities including religious worship, cosmology, or as part of an agricultural ritual. Moreover contrary to ancient astronaut assumptions the Nazca Lines can in fact be seen from the ground, including nearby hills. Consequently, scholars have concluded the geoglyphs were most probably constructed using the simple tools available to the Nazca people, in addition to wooden marking stakes similar to those found by archeological surveys of the area. This method was successfully replicated by researcher Joe Nickell’s team across just a few days, with their work described as “remarkable in its exactness” by Scientific American.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Badlands Guardian. Google Earth.

2. The Badlands Guardian is NOT a deliberate hill formation depicting an alien chieftain who was worshiped by Canadian Natives

Discovered only in 2005 by Lynn Hickox via Google Earth, the Badlands Guardian – also known as Indian Head – is a geomorphological feature situated near Medicine Hat in south-eastern Alberta, Canada. Viewable only from an aerial perspective, the Guardian resembles the appearance of a human wearing an Aboriginal headdress.

Within only a couple of years of the Guardian’s discovery alien conspiracy theorists began making claims about the site, including that it depicted either an Indian Chief’s face or that of a visiting alien leader, evidenced by the crown or headdress signifying a royal status. Suggesting the hills and mountains were deliberately crafted to construct the image, placing the erection at least hundreds of thousands if not millions of years ago, ancient astronaut theorists contend it was either created in veneration of the advanced alien visitors or upon the orders of a Native ruler seeking approval from extraterrestrial deities.

However despite such claims the Guardian is in fact a concave valley, not a convex protrusion as the image and theorists suggest, and a perfect example of the “Hollow-Face illusion” in nature. Consequently, we know that the “structure” is in fact a drainage feature formed by wind and water erosion on the malleable clay surface, occurring as a result of the arid badlands characteristic intense rain showers over a period of at least several hundred million years, with the resultant image merely a happy coincidence.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
A group of Moai at Rano Raraku, the main Moai quarry on Easter Island. Wikimedia Commons

3. The Moai of Easter Island was NOT constructed by alien assistance but by the Rapa Nui people

The Moai, found on Easter Island in eastern Polynesia, are monolithic human figures carved out of stone sometime between the years 1250 and 1500 CE. Depicting the faces of deified ancestors the statues possess disproportionate head-to-body sizes, typically accounting for three-eighths of the whole statue, with the tallest, named “Paro”, almost 10 meters in height and weighing 90.4 tons. With approximately 900 placed around the perimeter of Easter Island, the Moai faced inland across their historic clan lands until they were toppled between 1722 and 1868; the reasons for this are contested, with some accounts suggesting natural earthquakes while others point to inter-factional disputes.

Due to the isolated condition of Easter Island, the primitive technological conditions of the Rapa Nui, and the bizarre nature of the Moai, ancient astronaut theorists have long asserted extraterrestrial assistance would have been required to produce and transport the giant stone constructions. Furthermore, theorists point to the unfinished state of an additional 400 Moai at the Rano Raraku quarry, as well as finished but unmoved monoliths at the site, as evidence that the island’s native inhabitants could not complete the work without extraterrestrial assistance that never returned.

However, these conspiracy theories failed to account for several key facts regarding the Moai, including that some statues were merely rock carvings never intended for completion, that others were never completed as they were abandoned after imperfections were found in the rock during carving, and that some were intentionally placed at the quarry itself. Regarding the transportation of the Moai, whilst the island possessed few trees by the time of European arrival modern pollen analysis has confirmed Easter Island was almost entirely forested during the time of Moai construction; the foremost hypotheses of transportation rely upon the use of wooden equipment. Among these ingenious but plausible practical methods, experimentation by Charles Love has shown that 10-ton Moai placed upright on two sled runners atop log rollers and pulled by 25 men could move a statue at a speed of 150 feet in two minutes.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
An artistic map of Derinkuyu, showing only some of the many levels of the complex. Haeun Church.

4. The Underground City of Derinkuyu was NOT built under the direction of alien city planners to provide humanity secure bunkers to survive global disasters

The Derinkuyu underground city is an ancient multi-level complex in the eponymous district of Nevşehir Province, Turkey. Spreading across 11 known levels covering an area of approximately four square miles, including schools, chapels, stables, and other amenities, the city possessed over 15,000 air shafts and could have reasonably been inhabited by 20,000 people along with the necessary supplies and livestock to survive underground almost indefinitely. Only re-discovered in 1963 by accident during a home renovation, the site is still being further excavated with the deepest known points of the underground city currently around 278 feet.

One of over 200 underground cities in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, of which Derinkuyu is the largest known example, alien conspiracy theorists have contended since discovery the site is evidence of extraterrestrial city planning on Earth. Citing the complexity and supposedly unnecessary nature of the underground city, as well as 500 kg circular rocks designed to block off tunnel entrances, ancient astronaut theorists assert such cities were gifts from off-world beings to serve as bunkers during global disasters.

Whilst the exact origin of the underground city admittedly remains unknown, it is much more likely the cave systems were initially constructed by the Phrygians, an Indo-European people who inhabited the region in the 8th-7th centuries BCE, and later expanded by Greek Christian residents of above-ground Derinkuyu during the Byzantine era to include chapels and other Christian iconography. Faced with constant assaults during the Arab-Byzantine wars (780-1180 CE), and later by the Mongols, the use of underground refuges for civilian populations is a known and plausible explanation for the caves’ existence; in fact, residents of Derinkuyu are known to have used the underground city into the 20th century to escape Ottoman persecution, with such an occurrence recorded in 1909.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Stones of Baalbek, Lebanon. Hidden Inca Tours.

5. The Stones of Baalbek were NOT lifted into position by alien anti-gravity technology or ancient giants

The Temple of Jupiter complex in Baalbek, Lebanon, part of the ancient city of Heliopolis – the City of the Sun – is an immense stone construction. Situated on a raised plaza erected 16 feet over a preexisting podium, the walls of the temple were built from an estimated 24 stone monoliths weighing at least 330 tons. Perhaps most impressively the trilithon, a row of three stones supporting the western wall, are each measurable at over 62 feet long, 14 feet high, and 12 feet in breadth; the three stones weigh approximately 880 tons a piece, and rest upon foundational stones themselves weighing 350 tons each.

Although construction on the Roman temple began roughly three decades before the start of the Common Era, some academics have asserted the blocks were not in fact cut by the Romans but rather predate even Alexander the Great when he founded Heliopolis in 334 BCE. This uncertainty regarding the provenance of the stones, in conjunction with their immense size and weight, has resulted in numerous ancient astronaut theories regarding the construction of the site. Among these include Georgio Tsoukalos’s and David Childress’s contention that the stones were manipulated by alien assistance, employing such methods as anti-gravity technology and acoustic levitation; it has also been proposed that the stones were the work of extinct giants.

It is important to note that the Temple of Jupiter at Heliopolis, the largest dedicated to the deity in the Roman Empire, was not constructed overnight and instead took over three hundred years to complete. Secondly, although the alien architect theorists are correct that an individual Roman crane could not lift a stone of such weight, there is no evidence to suggest they did not simply use more than one crane. Most importantly, it is widely suspected the location itself was specifically chosen by the builders to enable the unique stone sizes. Situated downhill from the nearby quarry in which the stones originated, it is possible no lifting was even required as after being cut stones could be simply slid down to the construction site and into place.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
Stonehenge: Wiltshire, England. Getty Images.

6. Stonehenge was NOT constructed to serve as a beacon or landing site for alien overlords

Stonehenge is a prehistoric ring of standing stones located in Wiltshire, England. Believed to have been constructed between 3000 and 2000 BCE, the stones, each measuring around 13 feet high, 7 feet wide, and weighing approximately 25 tons, are set within earthwork foundations dating from 3100 BCE. Estimates of the manpower required to build the structure have been calculated at around 20 million hours using the available tools of the age.

Despite considerable archeological inquiry, it has remained unverified as to the actual purpose of the stone circle, consequently becoming the subject of countless unsubstantiated conspiracy theories. Among the multitude of claims, prominent alien astronaut theorist Erich von Däniken, who also speculated that the Nazca Lines in Peru are an alien landing strip, has asserted the standing stones are a model of the solar system which served the dual purpose of a spacecraft landing site. Däniken, among others, has also contended the stones could not have been transported from their quarry without extraterrestrial aid. Other theories concerning Stonehenge include a celestial observatory, interplanetary beacon or a site of ancient alien healing.

Repeated experimentation and archeological evidence reflect that the tools unquestionably existed for the successful transportation of the stones during this period, with methods from wooden tracks to submersion all proven effective. Concerning use, given the extensive commitment required to complete Stonehenge academic speculation has gravitated towards religious devotion, a common global factor behind many similar projects. Surrounding the site is the densest complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age burial mounds found in England, lending credence to the prevailing opinion Stonehenge was a significant part of a wider burial ground. It has been widely suggested that the stones may have been the core supporting framework for a larger wooden building with a roof, such as a religious ceremonial hall, and deposits of human bone dating from as early as 3000 BCE have been found near the site.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
Pumapunku, near Tiwanaku in western Bolivia. Wikimedia Commons.

7. The stonework of Pumapunku is NOT so complex only extraterrestrials could have carved it

Pumapunku is part of a temple complex at the Tiwanaku Site, Bolivia, dating from 536 CE and the location in Inca mythology where the world was created. Within the site, historically a center of human sacrifices, resides the “Plataforma Lítica”: a structure consisting of a stone terrace and paved with stone blocks; the largest of these blocks is measured at 25.6 feet long, 17 feet wide, 3.5. feet thick, and estimated to weight 131 tons. Throughout the site, described as “unimaginably wondrous” at its peak, is evidence of precision carving and cutting as well as architectural cramps – technology previously considered too advanced for the building capabilities of pre-European American civilizations.

Due to these building techniques, historically considered to have been beyond New World civilizations, a prolonged debate has ensued regarding the methods used to achieve the remarkable designs. Pumapunku has become a central location in ancient astronaut conjecture, with claims made that precision cuts of less than 1mm in variation into dense rocks such as diorite, the presence of smooth drilling holes reminiscent of modern-day prefabrication, or the existence of metal I-cramps at the site proves the use of advanced alien technologies rivaling our own modern tools.

However, overlooking the often arrogant racialist foundations of many of these assertions – that a New World civilization without a known writing system could comprehend the complexities of European architecture – these arguments fail to hold up. The loss of technology is a common occurrence throughout history, with the Incas upon discovering Pumapunku believing it was a city of the gods; it is possible the unknown civilization that constructed the site possessed technology capabilities more advanced that those of Natives encountered during the Age of Exploration. Equally, stone-cutters and builders were important professions and compared against the portfolio of human engineering from the ancient world it is not unreasonable to believe that a master of their craft was capable of such careful, precise work.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
Waffle Rock: Jennings Randolph Lake, Mineral County, West Virginia. Ancient-origins.net

8. Waffle Rock is NOT a piece of alien artwork left behind by extraterrestrial visitors to West Virginia

Located in Mineral County, West Virginia, Waffle Rock is a boulder so named for the regular geometric pattern composed of a darker colored rock found on one of its sides. Becoming an object of local curiosity at an unspecified time, by 1930 it was sufficiently important to the residents of Shaw, West Virginia, that when the American Army Corps of Engineers evacuated the town to construct a dam they were forced to also relocate the rock to Jennings Randolph Lake; a piece also resides at the Smithsonian Institute of Natural History in Washington D.C.

Due to the bizarre appearance of Waffle Rock, numerous theories have abounded regarding its origins and potential hidden purpose. Some contend it is a product of Native Americans, either as a form of cultural art or early writing, whilst a small society is committed to the idea it is in fact the skin of a giant prehistoric lizard that once inhabited West Virginia. Most prominent among these conspiracy theories is the assertion Waffle Rock is a relic from alien visitors to our planet, a “fact” supposedly reinforced by the concern shown by the U.S. Government in moving the rock to a new location in the 1930s.

In contrast, the accepted scientific theory asserts Waffle Rock was formed as a result of natural geological processes, likely beginning between 250 and 300 million years ago during the Appalachian Orogeny – the period in which the Appalachian Mountains were formed. During the Appalachian Orogeny, the sandstone components of the rock would have been compressed, resulting in fractures which across the next approximately 100 million years would be filled by iron oxide from surrounding rocks and water. This process would create a strong cement imprint, outlasting the sandstone crust and eventually producing the waffle-like pattern after millions of years of erosion and weathering.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
Palpa Flat Mountain, Peru. Pearltrees.

9. The Palpa Flat Mountain was NOT created by ancient alien astronauts as a landing strip for interplanetary spacecraft

Related to the Nazca Lines, a few miles away and high above the desert plains exists an enormous mountain with an atypically flat top. Known colloquially as the “Palpa Flat” the mountain possesses no surrounding debris at its base, such as fallen boulders, and contains similar albeit thicker lines to the plains floor; in conjunction with its’ location near the Nazca Lines, the mountain has generated speculation regarding the origin of its unusual shape by ancient astronaut conspiracy theorists.

Contending the top of the mountain was deliberately sheared off and the resultant debris carefully removed, either by ancient man or by alien technology, such conspiracy theories assert the mountain served as a landing site for extraterrestrial spacecraft with the lines serving as runway markers. Piles of stones scattered across the plateau surrounding the mountain are also included in these theories, alleged to be hidden writings in the Phoenician language from the ancient Mediterranean.

Whilst there is no way to definitively prove either way it is far more likely natural geological forces shaped the mountain into its current form, with similar rock formations identifiable at the base of almost every cordillera mountain range including the Himalayas. Instead, the Nazca plain most probably contained a now dried-up braided river, into which colluvial fan-deltas gradually dispersed tiny portions of the mountains eroded debris via feeder streams. In fact, the debris from the mountain top is most likely the gravel coating over the clay under-surface from which the Nazca Lines were able to be created.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Face on Mars, taken in 1976 by Viking 1. NASA

10. The Face on Mars is NOT proof of an ancient Martian civilization

The Cydonia region of Mars was first imaged in detail by Viking 1 on July 25, 1976, revealing the appearance of a humanoid face on a 2km long mesa on the Martian surface. Initially dismissed as a “trick of light and shadow”, the “face” has been since independently discovered by successive imaging allowing for three-dimensional representations of the feature.

Since release, the image has provoked sustained interest by ancient astronaut theorists, with the first speculations occurring less than a year later and even attracting attention by peer-reviewed publications such as the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. The prevailing consensus among such conspiracy theorists, notably Richard Hoagland, is that the “Face on Mars” is evidence of an extinct Martian civilization and in conjunction with other surface features is part of a wider ruined city on the red planet.

Unfortunately for these alien enthusiasts, the “face” is in fact an optical illusion similar to those produced on Earth including the Badlands Guardian, Romanian Sphinx, or the Old Man of Hoy. A product of the psychological experience of “pareidolia” – a phenomenon in which the human mind responds to an external stimulus by perceiving a familiar pattern where none actually exists – subsequent imaging and analysis by the Mars Global Surveyor in 2001 produced the conclusion that “a detailed analysis of multiple images of this feature reveals a natural looking Martian hill whose illusory face-like appearance depends on the viewing angle and angle of illumination”.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
A carving at El Fuerte de Samaipata, allegedly depicting a UFO.

11. El Fuerte de Samaipata was NOT an ancient meeting point between humans and aliens

El Fuerte de Samaipata is a pre-Columbian archeological site located in the Bolivian Andes, known for encompassing the buildings of three separate and distinct cultures: the Chanè, Inca, and Spanish. Originally constructed by the pre-Inca Chané peoples around 300 CE, it was occupied by the Inca Empire in the late 15th century and finally by the Spanish from around 1615. Among archeological curiosities at the site, two parallel lines known as “El Cascabel” or “The Rattle” are carved out of the red sandstone hill at such an angle to enable the precise observation of the joint risings of Venus and Jupiter at sunrise on August 20, 1066.

Due to this feature, in addition to an alleged carving of a UFO, a 1km long tunnel under the mountains, and an unfinished sculpted head, numerous conspiracy theorists have contended El Fuerte to be the site of ancient rendezvouses between humans and extraterrestrial beings. Father of ancient astronauts theory Erich von Däniken claimed in the 1960s “The Rattle” was in fact an alien landing strip and produced detailed photographs of stone carvings supposedly representing knowledge beyond that of ancient Peruvians including telescopes, detailed world maps, and advanced medicine.

However, these theories have largely been debunked, with the stones produced by Däniken likely fakes. An investigation by PBS television network determined the stones were in fact modern forgeries, made by local potters and sold to gullible tourists. Moreover, several ancient civilizations conducted cosmological experiments at least 500 years prior to the habitation of El Fuerte, largely connecting their findings to theology, and so it is entirely plausible they understood the celestial motions and deliberately crafted “The Rattle” accordingly.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Pyramids at Giza – from left to right the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Wikimedia Commons.

12. The Egyptian Monuments at Giza were NOT constructed by aliens using sonic levitation

The ancient Egyptian constructions located at Giza, including the “Great Pyramid” and its two companions, the Pyramid of Khafre and Pyramid of Menkaure, in addition to several smaller “Queen’s pyramids” and the Great Sphinx, have long been subject to speculation regarding alien involvement. Constructed approximately 4500 years ago, across a period of multiple decades, the site stands as one of the iconic symbols of the ancient world.

Whilst the purpose of the edifices remains generally accepted, serving as the burial tombs of deceased Pharaohs and repositories of their goods for use in the afterlife, the discussion of how the pyramids were built routinely encompasses ancient astronauts theories asserting extraterrestrial assistance. Citing the size of the precisely cut and placed stones, the relatively immaculate condition of the structures compared to much younger pyramids, the presence of supposed drawings of aliens and extraterrestrial symbols inside the tombs, in addition to the astronomical configuration of the buildings – allegedly mirroring the cosmological constellation of Orion’s belt – conspiracy theorists claim there would have been no way for ancient Egyptians to construct the site without alien technology or assistance.

However, despite such claims, there are several workable theories concerning construction methods. The prevailing assessment is that the rocks were quarried south of the site’s location, cut and marked precisely to the required angles of the pyramids, and then transported by river barge to Giza for assembly. Regarding the elevation of these blocks, weighing up to 60 tons each, Greek historian Herodotus recorded in the 5th century BCE a construction method in Egypt utilizing the “intercept theorem” employing levers to manipulate the stones up each tiered level. As for the question of preservation, unlike most ancient edifices which were subsequently reused for building materials the pyramids at Giza remained largely untouched, due to local fears of mythological curses and periodic submersion by sand impeding the effects of natural erosion.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
A section of the wall at Sacsayhuamán, Peru. Wikimedia Commons.

13. The mighty walls of the citadel of Sacsayhuamán were NOT built by aliens using anti-gravity devices

Sacsayhuamán is a citadel complex located near Cusco, the historic capital of the Inca Empire in Peru. Initially constructed by the Killke people between 900-1100 CE, it was expanded by the Inca from the 13th century. Among its important features, the terraced walls of Sacsayhuamán, approximately 400 meters in length and 6 meters tall, are constructed from approximately 200 ton stone blocks so precisely interlocked that the gaps between them are less than that of a single piece of paper; this flawless design has allowed the wall to survive major earthquakes in the region, whilst modern structures have collapsed.

Due to the impressive architectural nature of these mighty walls, stacked akin to a jigsaw, it has been contested that Sacsayhuamán could only have been constructed by an ancient civilization with assistance from a technologically advanced life-form. However similar walls exist throughout the historic Inca Empire, including in nearby Cusco, with the civilization widely recognized as highly skilled at complicated and intricate construction. Furthermore, an archeological study has uncovered evidence of a rope-and-lever system used by the Inca for quarry transportation, dismissing claims of the immovability of such weights without anti-gravity technology.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The ruins of Göbekli Tepe, Turkey. Wikimedia Commons.

14. The Göbekli Tepe was NOT an ancient temple dedicated to the worship of extraterrestrials

The Göbekli Tepe – or “Potbelly Hill” – located in the Anatolia region of Turkey is an artificial mound, approximately 100 feet in diameter and 50 feet high, containing some of the oldest surviving ancient structures in the world. Believed to date to the 10th-8th millenniums BCE, more than 200 pillars, weighing each nearly 10 tons and measuring 20 feet tall, arranged in roughly 20 circles and fitted into sockets precisely hewn from the bedrock have been discovered.

With the site possibly predating the existence of agriculture, and National Geographic describing the Göbekli Tepe as “like finding that someone had built a 747 in a basement with an X-Acto knife“, the discovery has become a focal point of speculation for advocates of alien architecture. Given the incredible age of the Göbekli Tepe, nearly 6,000 years older than Stonehenge and with stones almost twice the height, such arguments typically revolve around the technological impediments precluding man-made construction of the site and instead suggesting the contributions of extraterrestrial forces.

However, it is important to note that the Göbekli Tepe was not part of a larger settlement, rather a unique single structure. Instead, it is believed by the site’s archeological team to have served as a sanctuary for a periodic congregation, likely of a religious nature, with evidence of animal sacrifices present at the location. Thus the Göbekli Tepe did not require other population-related technologies such as agriculture to have existed, and as noted concerning Stonehenge religious devotion has served recurrently as a unifying factor behind ancient monumental structures.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, as seen from the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan. Wikimedia Commons.

15. Teotihuacán was NOT a product of an advanced alien civilization with access to electricity

Teotihuacán – the “City of the Gods” – is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in the Valley of Mexico, believed to have been founded around 100 BCE. During the 1st millennium, CE Teotihuacán was likely the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, with its estimated population in excess of 125,000 making it at least the sixth-largest city in the world at that time. However for reasons unknown the city was abandoned during the 7th and 8th centuries, before being found and repopulated by the Aztec Empire in the 14th century. Among its most impressive structures, the Avenue of the Dead comprises 15 pyramids including the colossal Pyramid of the Sun – the third largest pyramid in the world, measuring 720 feet in length, 760 feet wide, and 41,841,817 cubic feet in volume.

Due to such immense constructs, in addition to claims of astronomical alignment, similarities to other ancient pyramids such as at Giza, and the sudden decline of the once-great city, it is often claimed that the city was the product of technologically superior aliens. The existence of stores of liquid mercury and the presence of large quantities of mica – a silicate mineral stable when exposed to electricity – embedded in the walls and roads has also led some ancient astronaut theorists to claim the existence of an electrical grid in the ancient city.

In actuality, the mysteries of Teotihuacán are reasonably well explained. The Pyramid of the Sun was constructed over roughly a hundred-year period, beginning approximately in 100 CE, using simple and known building methods. Laying each level separately, and adding a finish of lime plaster upon which colored murals were painted, the technology of the time would have been more than sufficient. Equally, the presence of pyramids themselves across separated continents reflects not alien interference but basic geometry; a pyramid is a high strength, stable structure, requiring few intricate parts and thus an excellent choice for an imposing yet achievable monument. Lastly, the sudden decline of Teotihuacán is largely suspected to have been caused by regional conflict and climatic droughts, similar to the causes of the Classic Maya collapse and not alien vengeance, with ecological decline observable in discovered remains of juvenile skeletons with evidence of malnutrition.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
The Carnac Stones in the Kerlescan alignment. Wikimedia Commons.

16. The Carnac stones are NOT remnants of an ancient alien astronomical observatory

The Carnac stones, located near the eponymous village in Brittany, France, are a dense collection of more than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones. Erected by pre-Celtic inhabitants of Brittany sometime between 4500 BCE and 3000 BCE, the stones, each approximately 4 meters high, form the largest known collection of standing stones in the world. Arranged in a number of groups, the main alignment involves 12 rows stretching more than a kilometer in descending order of height and a stone circle at either end.

Whilst local myth claims they are the remains of a Roman legion turned into stone by the wizard Merlin, proponents of ancient astronaut theory assert they were created by alien visitors to serve an alternate purpose, either as Erich von Däniken claimed as an astronomical observatory and landing site for these extraterrestrial tourists or as an elaborate earthquake detector.

Academic opinion is split between two chief possibilities, the first, and less accepted, being that the stones served as a man-made calendar. First proposed by Alexander Thom, this contention suggests the stones operated in some way to inform farmers of harvest seasons and celestial phenomena. The second and more widely recognized theory remains that the stones served a funerary purpose, similar to those of Saint-Michel which predate the site at Carnac, forming part of an enormous necropolis.

17 Structures from History that some People claim Ancient Aliens are Responsible for
Machu Picchu near Cusco, Peru. Wikimedia Commons.

17. Machu Picchu was NOT an alien city built in the Peruvian mountains

Machu Picchu is an Inca citadel located on a mountain ridge in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. Constructed around 1450 CE, the site was abandoned only a century later during the Spanish Conquest due to wider Native population decline as a result of war and disease. Situated on the precipice, the mountain, with 1500 foot vertical drops on three sides, the site encompasses a 325.9 km² area and at its peak is estimated to have been occupied by just 750 residents.

According to ancient astronaut “expert” Giorgio Tsoukalos, the positioning of the stones are evidence of alien involvement in the construction of Machu Picchu. Claiming the larger rocks at the bottom of the site are significantly older than the smaller stones used for the upper layers, Tsoukalos contends it makes “no sense” without alien assistance for the supposedly primitive Inca civilization to have chosen to use the more cumbersome ones to begin with. Ancient astronaut theorists equally point to the small population of the city as evidence of selection, with only a chosen few permitted to enter the residence of extraterrestrial overlords.

Despite these claims, the buildings of Machu Picchu are not distinct from the widely exemplified classical Inca architectural style, using a technique known as “ashlar” in which blocks of polished dry-stone are cut to fit tightly without mortar; this technique was particularly necessary for Machu Picchu, as the location and frequent seismic activity rendered mortar ineffective as a building method. Furthermore, there is a consensus among archeologists and historians that Machu Picchu was built under the orders of the Inca ruler Pachacuti, the founder of the Inca Empire, to serve as a royal palace; being merely a palace rather than a fully-fledged city more rationally explains the low population than alien segregation.


Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“The Lost City of the Incas”, Hiram Bingham, Phoenix (2003)

“Machu Picchu: A Citadel of the Incas”, Hiram Bingham, Hacker Art Books (1979)

“A Guide to the Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany”, Aubrey Burl, Yale University Press (1995)

“Fuerte de Samaipata–UNESCO World Heritage Centre, UNESCO World Heritage Site

“The Ancient Kingdoms of Mexico”, Nigel Davies, Penguin (1982)

“The Aztecs, Maya, and ther Predecessors: Archeology of Mesoamerica”, Muriel Porter Weaver, San Diego Academic Press (1993)

“Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?”, Andrew Curry, Smithsonian Magazine (2008)

“7,000 years older than Stonehenge: the site that stunned archeologists”, Nicholas Birch, The Guardian (2008)

“The History of the Conquest of Peru”, W.H. Prescott, Digireads Publishing (2011)

“Myths and Mythology of Ancient Egypt” Lucia Gahlin, Southwater Publishing (2003)

“The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World”, Chirs Scarre, Thames and Hudson (1999)

“The Pyramids: Their Archeology and History”, Miroslav Verner, Atlantic Books (2002)

“The Great Stone Face and Other Nonmysteries”, Martin Gardner, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (1985)

“Nasa: No face – honest”, David Whitehouse, BBC News (2007)

“The Lines of Nazca”, Anthony Aveni, American Philosophical Society (1990)

“Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries”, Brian Haughton, Career Press (2007)

“The Nazca Lines: A New Perspective on their Origin and Meaning”, Johan Reinhard, Los Pinos (1996)

“Gran’s canyon is a net sensation”, Stephen Hutcheon, Sydney Morning Herald (2006)

“Badlands Guardian”, Wikipedia

“Ancient Mysteries”, Rupert Matthews, Wayland Publishing (1988)

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